Creating middleware in ASP.NET Core is surprisingly straightforward. Let me show you how I created a custom middleware to get a value from the header of my API requests, which I later used in an authorization policy.
[caption id="attachment_4695” align="aligncenter” width="990”] Art by Jacob Rozalski[/caption]
I’m building an API using to manage events. We only want authenticated users to access events that they have are authorized for.
Every request in my API has a header value of
EventId. Trouble is I can’t get the context (and therefore the header value) from my authorization policy.
When a user hits an endpoint in my API I’m doing two things:
- Ensuring the user is authenticated (ensuring their JWT is valid)
- Confirming the user is allowed access to the event
Below are two code snippets.
In the first (below, on line 5) I’m using my policy (via the attribute). This will apply for all the actions in my controller.
In the second code snippet, below, have a look at line 12. This is where I’m passing in the event ID using dependency injection. I need to know the event ID here so I can check that the user has access.
BTW, the following is a rough outline of my permission handler. Note that I’m using Auth0 for all my auth.
If you want to understand how this works in more detail checkout Policy Based Authorization in ASP.NET Core.
When a request hits your API it goes through a series of middleware (steps) defined in the
Configure method in Startup.cs.
Have a look at the picture below. Imagine what I’m doing is creating Middleware 3 so that, during the flow of the request, I can grab and store that header value.
[caption id="attachment_4696” align="alignnone” width="600”] Sample middleware flow. Picture from docs.microsoft.com.[/caption]
Take a look at my
Configure method. You’ll see there’s 7 pieces of middleware. They go through the precise order you see below - with my middleware being the final one at line 28.
If you’d like to read more about middleware checkout the article from docs.microsoft.com. Michał Dudak also has a good (but long) post that explains it all in detail. My goal is to show you more succinctly.
The Custom Middleware
Storing the Event Id
I need to store the ID from my middleware. In a nutshell: I created a simple POCO to store the event ID and stored it as a scoped variable using DI.
Here is the interface and the implementation. For brevity I put them in the same file.
Here’s my complete Startup.cs file. Checkout line 15 where I added the value as a Scoped variable. Note: scoped means the lifetime is that of the request.
Here’s my middleware. A few things to note:
- I’m using dependency injection (DI) to store & use the RequestDelegate (line 12)
- The Invoke method has the event ID object injected at line 17
- The event ID is being set on line 21
That’s it - we’re done! this point I can go into my Configure method and call it using
You can see how I’m doing that of line 103 in my Startup.cs (above).
But wait - there’s more!
Other pieces of middleware have nice methods to invoke/use it. For example: Swagger has
You can create a static wrapper method and give it a nice name, like this below.
I could now replace app.UseMiddleware() in startup.cs with app.UseStoreEventId().
By using the middleware I can get the event ID, which I can then use to confirm the user is authorized to access the content.
If you found this useful leave me a comment below!